How to Write an Essay: Basic Tips on Writing an Effective Essay

The essay writing is included in the program of famous international English language exams, such as TOEFL and CPE. So, learn how to do it in a right way!

Ability to compose an essay needs a high level of language skills. And not so much people understand how to deal with it. We will give you a few very useful recommendations for composing essays, which will be useful to you in life.

It’s difficult, but – start in advance. As prior you begin to consider the theme of the article, as additional time you will use to collect the material. When your brain is set up to consider a question, the information seems to fall on its own.

The same happens when you learn a new word: it starts to appear that it happens all the more frequently in the content. The thing is that you become more adapted to a certain type of information, paying more attention to it.

To begin with, it’s best to sketch out what you know on the topic of the essay. Perhaps you know even more than you thought. This will give you ideas in which direction you should move on. In order to act purposefully, draw up a plan. When you begin to study the material, you will have new, more specific inquiries, and you will be able to search for answers on them.

Even the most experienced essay writer at the starting point of work on a new work sometimes attends feelings of indecision and fear. But, as they say, the main thing is not in desire or skill. You simply need to begin composing. It does not matter where you start; the most essential is that you just do not have to stop writing. Make preliminary sketches of the main thoughts and after that go on to design the structure of your future creation.

If you write on a computer it won’t be troublesome for you to swap fragments of the written, differently grouping them. If you prefer paper and pen, leave space in one or two lines between every line so that you can finish something later.

The urgent help in writing dissertation abstract by professionals in their area

The author’s abstract is a document without which the dissertation cannot be admitted to the defense. In this regard, the author’s abstract is understood as a legal document. Only with obtaining permission to make copies of the author’s abstract, the applicant obtains the right to defend the thesis, ie. Preparation of the author’s abstract, in fact, the last and most responsible stage of work on the thesis is being completed. The importance of the author’s abstract as a document is also that according to the data mentioned in it, one judges the level of the dissertation and the scientific qualification of its author, including his ability to formalize the results of his scientific work.

Basic functions of the dissertation abstract

The dissertation abstract performs the following functions:

informational – informs the readers about the structure of the dissertation, the relevance of the subject matter being developed, the subject, the object, the purpose and objectives of the research, the personal contribution of the author to the development of the research problem;

indicative – describes the methods developed by the author;

signal – notifies that the dissertation is prepared and is available in the library at the place of work of the dissertation council about where and when its protection will take place, who of the scientists will act as opponents on the dissertation;

familiarizing – is a source for obtaining reference data on the conducted scientific research and the results obtained;

cognitive – gives an idea of the scientific potential of the author.

The selection of the main materials for the abstract is due to the target orientation of the author’s abstract and the dissertation.

Help in writing the dissertation abstract

In the structure of the dissertation abstract, it is appropriate to select the following sections:

I. General characteristics of the work.

II. The main provisions of the dissertation that are put on defense.

III. Conclusions and recommendations.

IV. List of works in which the main findings of the dissertation are published.

General characteristic of the dissertation abstract

In this section, it is desirable to reflect the following positions:

The relevance of research;

degree of problem development;

purpose and objectives of the study;

subject and object of research;

methodological, theoretical and empirical basis of research;

scientific results to be defended;

scientific novelty of research results;

theoretical and practical significance of the work;

compliance of the dissertation with the passport of a scientific specialty;

approbation and implementation of research results;


The structure (table of contents) of the dissertation.

The relevance of research in dissertation abstract

Any abstract begins with a substantiation of the relevance of the research problem, which allows us to judge the depth of the author’s understanding of the problem of his own research and, accordingly, the quality of the research performed.

When justifying the relevance of the study, you can stop at the following points:

New conditions and prerequisites, which determine the actuality of the phenomenon under study now;

coverage of this problem in official documents;

the requests of the society, which can be satisfied with the solution of this problem;

coverage of the issue in the scientific literature;

scientific problems with which the research problem is related;

the needs of science, which can be satisfied with the solution of this problem;

substantiation of the problem from the perspective of the development of other sciences;

the reasons why the problem is currently becoming topical;

the reasons why this problem attracts the attention of practitioners;

needs of practice that can be met by solving this problem;

available achievements, which should be summarized and analyzed.

Justification of the relevance of the research problem can be carried out using different approaches. Extremely important is the multidimensional nature of the evidence of relevance, the applicant’s attempt to consider the urgency of the selected problem from different perspectives.

Degree of the problem development in dissertation abstract

In this section, it should be indicated, in the works of which authors were investigated the questions mentioned in the dissertation. Based on this review, it is necessary to single out the unexplored aspects of the problem, to which the problem posed in the dissertation should also relate.

Here it is necessary to list the local and foreign scholars who dealt with this problem in various perspectives, as well as its modern researchers, indicate insufficiently developed points and distortions due to the weak awareness of the topic in the domestic literature, if any. To substantiate the reference to this topic can be, for example, insufficient in-depth research or an abundance in the foreign literature of an unknown national scientific community of material on it that should be introduced into scientific circulation.


Coursework writing help

Each student who writes his coursework is engaged in the search of reliable and verified wellsprings of information about the subject of his examination.

The list of sources you need to utilize when you compose your coursework includes:

Lecture materials can be used to build an initial coursework plan. If the student was able to point out all the important aspects of the course project during the lecture session, then he gets an additional advantage. Lecture materials will help him to get a general idea of the subject of his research. Due to his notes, the student will be guided by a large list of additional literature with which he will have to be acquainted at the time of composing his coursework. In addition, the professor can give references to useful authors of course books, articles, or scientific papers.

Educational literature. In textbooks, students w will have the capacity to discover essential information about the theme that is introduced by simple words. That is why when you study the topic of your work it is necessary to begin with textbooks, where you can get all the basic concepts.

Scientific articles that can be found in newspapers. Such printed publications tend to have a strict thematic direction. More often, you can find them in various libraries. Usually journals have official websites. On such pages students can get acquainted with electronic versions of recently published articles.

Reliable Internet resources. You can not use every simple information you found in the internet because they may not be relevant or not true. All the information collected on the internet should be confirmed by scientific literature. The Internet becomes essential when a student is looking for a scientific article written over 50 years ago. As a rule, such literature is difficult to find in university, city and regional libraries. Often, internet resources are the only place where you can find the rare works of scientists. On the specialized websites and forums, you can find a lot of useful information, and you can find different links to extra wellsprings of data about the subject of your coursework.

An abstract

The simplicity of this work is due to the lack of strict requirements regarding the amount of materials presented in the work, the presence of analysis of these materials and the availability of conclusions on the material presented. The abstract is written on one of the topics of interest to the department, concerning which there is already an established opinion. And this attitude to this work exists in all departments of educational institutions.

The abstract is a work, for the creation of which it is enough to carefully study several fairly common sources, let’s say the textbooks. As a criterion for selecting sources, their volume is most often considered, since it is easier to choose the information necessary for creating the abstract from a large number of information or data.

As practice shows in a sufficiently voluminous source, one can find a chapter or a separate paragraph, which can completely coincide with the preset topic of the abstract. The main purpose of such work as an abstract is to clarify some point of view on one of the scientific or practical problems. When completing the essay, the student gets the most complete idea of the existing point of view on the problem, finds out the existing approach to solving this problem and clarifies some general conditions and approaches. Ideally, the abstract may recommend a more in-depth study of the problem, or a new look at the current view. However, such cases are extremely rare, and the abstract remains a work that reflects the established point of view.

The standard requirements for the abstract consist in the following structure of this work: starting with a table of contents, then there is an introduction, then the main part, which consists of several chapters, the conclusion is concluded at the end of the work and immediately after it the list of sources. The structure of the abstract is most clearly visible in the work plan. This part of the work is usually located in the “Content”. Drawing up a summary plan, in most educational institutions, is carried out without approval from the head. The introduction, as well as the conclusion, relate to the simplest part of the work. To formulate an introduction, it’s enough just to emphasize the importance of the topic of the work, determine the goal that will be achieved upon completion of the work, outline several ways to achieve this goal. To draw up a conclusion, it is sufficient to state the achievement of the goal, list the answers to the task and draw a general conclusion about the solution of the problem. The most difficult part of the abstract is the main part. It is very important to make a logically coordinated structure of the material presented in a few chapters.

Dissertation and the diploma project

Degree of seriousness of attitude to the topic and format of the submission of material and the regulation of these moments determines the main differences. The dissertation as a scientific work in contrast to the diploma as a teaching work should demonstrate the degree of independence of the scientist and his qualifications. The qualification study differs from the diploma on the following parameters:

To work for the degree of a candidate, you need to write 200-250 pages, for the humanities, such as jurisprudence or history, there is a difference, they should be slightly larger;

Number of sources. The required number – 200-300 sources for the dissertation work and 50-100 for the diploma, more than for the abstract, but less than necessary to achieve a significant value for discipline, the diploma gives a general idea of the topic, and not an important study;

Style. The writing of a dissertation requires the use of a high scientific style;

The necessity of mandatory introduction of the results of the Ph.D. thesis, for humanitarian or legal topics it is possible to confirm their theoretical value for colleagues;

Procedure of approbation. The results should be preliminarily stated in the articles;

The requirement for compulsory preparation of the necessary author’s abstract;

The important difference is the procedure of protection, if for the diploma it’s a formality, for the candidate it is the necessary part of the work.

The difference is quite large when the applicant is studying in graduate school, he doesn’t always realize the complexity of the task before him, doesn’t know how difficult his project will be written. It is an independent kind of scientific work, in which a specialist who has completed a master’s degree, proves his right to be called a master.

If a Ph.D. is a scientific degree, then the receipt of the title of master says only about the successful completion of the second stage of higher education.

The order of protection differs, it isn’t required to do this on the dissertation council, it is protected, like the diploma, in the educational institution itself. There are also no requirements for the availability of articles and other mandatory preliminary activities.

An essay. Advices to writing

It has long been known that this kind of easily accessible manner of presentation as an essay is used to assess the author’s personality, his feelings, the degree of individuality of his thoughts, as well as his outlook. The essay in no way depends on the amount of knowledge or on the subject of research.

The main aim of the essay is to move away from the framework, the predominance of associations, over logic. If it is difficult for you to keep within the solid framework of the abstract, or in any given structure, a free form of essay is for you.

If you have difficulties, where to start and how to proceed in the future, let’s look at several stages.

The theme of the essay is chosen or received from the teacher, but if you are faced with a free choice of topic, the main that you need to remember is that the theme of the essay is intended to disclose not only the definitions of concepts, its purpose is to encourage reflection. The free theme is wonderful because you are given the opportunity to reveal yourself and share with people what interests and surprised you,  made you look differently at people and the world. If you were given a free subject for writing an essay, you were given free paths of revealing yourself.

Sometimes, to write your own, unique essay requires processing, analysis of someone else’s text or thoughts. To work with the text, we suggest to address three simple rules:

First of all, select the desired passage from the large text, which, undoubtedly, will shorten the field of activity and, of course, the full time of writing the essay.

Then follows briefly (without distorting the author’s thoughts) to write down or verbally retell the selected passage of the text.

And the final stage, to compose from such kinds of passages, your own text for your verbal response, or written work.

These simple steps will not only help you learn all the necessary techniques, but also teach you how to save your thoughts.